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Berlin Police Discover Massive Cocaine Stash Distributed Throughout Aldi Grocery Stores

Berlin Police Discover Massive Cocaine Stash Distributed Throughout Aldi Grocery Stores

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The multiple-store stash was divided into individual kilogram packs and hidden between bunches of bananas

Aldi employees first discovered the cocaine while unpacking bananas.

Authorities in Berlin discovered more than 300 kilograms (approximately 600 pounds) of cocaine stashed inside banana boxes throughout several locations of the grocery chain Aldi, reports The Associated Press.

The cocaine is estimated to have a market value of roughly $16.8 million, making it the largest seizure of its kind to date in Berlin.

The drugs were wrapped in one-kilogram packs, each of which was hidden between the bananas, police spokesman Michael Gassen told the AP. In total, the cocaine supply was distributed throughout 14 different locations of Aldi in and around Berlin. Investigators continue to search through other branches of Aldi to locate any remaining drugs.

The first discovery was made on Monday, May 4 by Aldi employees who were in the process of removing bananas from produce boxes.

"We are going to track down the trade route of the bananas and investigate all possible traces," Gassen told the AP.

Subaru EJ255 Engine

The EJ255 engine had a die-cast aluminium block with 99.5 mm bores and a 79.0 mm stroke for a capacity of 2457 cc. The cast iron cylinder liners for the EJ255 engine were ‘dry type’, meaning that their outer surfaces were in complete contact with the cylinder walls. The EJ255 engine had a semi-closed deck design whereby the cylinder walls were attached to the black at the twelve, three, six and nine o’clock positions.

Compared to its EJ207 predecessor, the EJ255 cylinder block had a new high strength, cast steel alloy rear main journal to reduce bearing oil clearance during cold operation and, as a result, reduce vibration and bearing rumble noise during the warm-up phase. Furthermore, this reduced bearing oil clearance was maintained when the engine was at operating temperature.

Crankshaft, connecting rods and pistons

The crankshaft for the EJ255 engine was supported by five aluminium alloy bearings and the crankshaft thrust bearing - positioned at the rear of the crankshaft – had a metal flange to support thrust forces. Each corner formed by a journal or pin and a web underwent a fillet-rolling process to increase its strength.

The connecting rods for the EJ255 engine were made from forged high carbon steel, while big end cap dowel pins and set screws were used for accurate mating.

The slipper skirt pistons were made from high tensile strength aluminium alloy (UAC12H) and had ‘dough nut’ shaped crowns to prevent interference with the intake and exhaust valves it also had engraved marks to identify piston size and direction of installation. The piston head and ring grooves were coated with Alumite, while the piston skirts had a molybdenum coating to reduce friction. Compared to the EJ207 engine piston pin offset for the EJ255 engine was reduced to accommodate tighter piston to bore clearances and reduce unburnt gas build-up between the cylinder wall and piston head.

Each piston in the EJ255 engine had three rings: two compression rings and one oil control ring. Of these, the top piston ring has inner bevels and the second piston ring has a cut on the bottom outside to reduce oil consumption.

Cylinder head and camshafts

The EJ255 engine had a low pressure cast aluminium cylinder head that was mounted on a head gasket which consisted of three stainless steel sheet layers. The double overhead camshafts (DOHC) per cylinder bank were driven by a single timing belt which had round profile teeth for quiet operation and was made from a strong flexible core wire, wear resistant canvas and heat resistant rubber.

Each camshaft was supported at three journals, held in position by three camshaft caps and had a flange which fitted the corresponding groove in the cylinder head to receive thrust forces. To increase wear resistance and anti-scuffing properties, the noses of the cam lobes were subjected to a ‘chill’ treatment. Relative to the EJ207 engine, it is understood that camshaft mass for the EJ255 engine was reduced by 1700 grams through the use of hollow shafts and sintered cam lobes.

The EJ255 engine had parallel flow cooling system whereby coolant flowed into the block under pressure, crossed the gasket to the cylinder head and then passed through holes adjacent to each cylinder.


Active Valve Control System (AVCS)

With the exception of the BM/BR Liberty GT, the EJ255 was equipped with Subaru’s ‘Active Valve Control System’ (AVCS) which provided variable intake valve timing by changing the phase angle of the camshaft sprocket relative to the camshaft. When introduced in the SG Forester XT, the AVCS for the EJ255 engine had a 20 degree range of adjustment. However, the range of adjustment was subsequently increased to 35 degrees for the GD/GG Impreza WRX and 50 degrees for the GE/GH Impreza WRX the ranges for the other models in the table below

Under the control of the ECM, an oil flow control valve would move its spool to switch the hydraulic passage to/from the advance and retard chambers in the camshaft sprocket to vary the phase angle between the camshaft sprocket and camshaft.

  • Optimum valve timing for stable idling: minimal intake and exhaust valve overlap)
  • Improved fuel consumption at medium engine speeds and low loads: intake valve timing was advanced to reduce intake air blow back and improve fuel consumption. Furthermore, increasing intake and exhaust valve overlap enhanced exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for a reduction in NOx emissions. When engine load increased, advancing the intake closing time utilised the inertia of the intake air to create a supercharging effect and,
  • Maximum power at high engine speed and load: intake valve timing was further advanced to maximise overlap and utilise the scavenging effect produced by exhaust gas pulsations to draw intake air into the cylinder. Since the intake valve was closed at the end of the intake stroke, air intake efficiency was improved and power increased.

Dual Active Valve Control System: BM/BR Liberty GT


Like other EJ Phase II engines, the intake ports for the EJ255 engine created a ‘tumble swirl’ motion for the intake air as it entered the cylinder for better air/fuel mixing to achieve more uniform flame travel and faster combustion.

Unlike the EJ207 engine, the EJ255 had a Tumble Generator Valve (TGV) in the intake manifold to improve exhaust gas emissions at low engine speeds. The TGV caused intake airflow to be redirected by closing a butterfly valve in the intake manifold, creating a tumble air motion at low intake air speeds to enhance air/fuel mixing.


Subaru SG Forester XT (2003-05): Mitsubishi TD04L turbocharger

Subaru SH Forester XT (2008-12): Mitsubishi TD04L turbocharger

It is understood that the Subaru SH Forester XT continued to use Mitsubishi TD04L turbocharger, though the shape of the turbine wheel and impeller were changed to improve torque at low-to-medium engine speeds. The Subaru SH Forester XT also introduced a larger intercooler with a core capacity of 3.8 litres and cooling capacity of 12.1 kW.

GD/GG Impreza WRX (2005-07): Mitsubishi TD04L Turbocharger

GE/GH Impreza WRX (2008-14): TD04 and VF52 turbochargers

Upon its release, the GE/GH Impreza WRX had a Mitsubishi TD04 turbocharger which provided peak boost pressure of 78 kPa or 11.3 psi the intercooler had a cooling capacity of 12.1 kW.

From December 2008, however, the GE/GH Impreza WRX was fitted with an IHI VF52 turbocharger which provided greater boost pressure in separate press releases, Subaru Australia listed boost pressure as 92 kPa and 103 kPa, though the latter is considered to be incorrect since 103 kPa was the boost pressure for the EJ257 engine in the Impreza WRX STi. The post-December 2008 GE/GH Impreza WRX also had a bigger intercooler (cooling capacity of 14.0 kW) and a revised exhaust system which achieved a 30 per cent reduction in gas flow restriction.

BL/BP Liberty GT (2006-09): IHI VF46

BM/BR Liberty GT (2009-14): IHI VF45

  • A larger compressor wheel and air pump to force a greater volume of air into the cylinders
  • A 25 per larger intercooler and,
  • The catalytic converter was positioned immediately after the turbocharger so that it reached operating temperature sooner, thereby reducing cold-start emissions.

Injection and ignition

The EJ255 engine had multi-point fuel injection with an injection and firing order of 1-3-2-4. The pentroof combustion chambers had a wide ‘squish area’ for increased combustion efficiency and centrally positioned spark plugs. The EJ255 engine had an ignition coil for each cylinder that was positioned directly above the spark plug. While the SG Forester XT had Iridium spark plugs, it is understood that all other models in the table above had platinum-tipped spark plugs.

The EJ255 engine had an ignition knock control facility with fuzzy logic that enabled the maximum ignition advance to be used without detonation by constantly adapting to changes in environmental conditions and fuel quality.


2006 – Rep. Mark Foley resigns over sexually explicit e=mails to male pages

In April 2001 , Rick Yannuzzi, the CIA’s deputy national intelligence officer for strategic and nuclear programs, is found dead at his home in the Oakton VA area. Police call it a suicide. According to the Washington Post, “Yannuzzi’s apparent suicide caught colleagues by surprise and left them searching for possible explanations. Yannuzzi apparently left a suicide note in which he expressed love for his family but gave no explanation for taking his life, sources said.”

DEAN CALBREATH AND JERRY KAMMER, COPLEY NEWS SERVICE – Poway military contractor Brent Wilkes – whom Justice Department officials identify as the co-conspirator – has long been active in local political circles, serving as the San Diego County finance co-chairman of Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger’s campaign and the state finance co-chairman for President Bush. Wilkes has not been charged with a crime in the Cunningham case. . . . Wilkes’ story shows how gifts, favors and campaign contributions can be used to gain lucrative business from the government. Over the past 20 years, Wilkes has devoted much of his career to developing political contacts in Washington

Brent Wilkes, founder of ADCS Inc., is identified by officials as “co-conspirator No. 1” in the Randy “Duke” Cunningham bribery case. Those who know Wilkes describe him as gregarious and ambitious, a person who can make friends easily and toss them aside just as quickly. . .

Wilkes made no bones about where his money was coming from. His jet-black Hummer bore a license plate reading MIPR ME – a reference to Military Interdepartmental Purchase Requests, which authorize funds in the Pentagon.

Wilkes shared the benefits of his largesse with the politicians who helped him. He took Cunningham on several out-of-state trips on his corporate jet. Cunningham has produced no records showing that he paid for food, lodging or transportation while traveling to resorts with Wilkes, although he does have receipts for several campaign trips on Wilkes’ jet.

Wilkes also bought a small powerboat that he moored behind Cunningham’s yacht, the Kelly C, at the Capital Yacht Club in Washington, D.C. The boat was available for Cunningham’s use anytime Wilkes was not using it.

But what landed Wilkes in trouble with federal prosecutors was his gifts to Cunningham. According to Cunningham’s plea agreement, “Co-conspirator No. 1,” gave $525,000 to Cunningham on May 13, 2004, to pay off the second mortgage on Cunningham’s home in Rancho Santa Fe.

Co-conspirator No. 1 also gave $100,000 to Cunningham on May 1, 2000, which went into Cunningham’s personal accounts in San Diego and Washington, D.C. And he paid $11,116.50 to help pay Cunningham’s mortgage on the Kelly C.

The plea agreement charged that in return for the payments, Cunningham “used his public office and took other official action to influence U.S. Department of Defense personnel to award and execute government contracts.”

Wilkes befriended other legislators, too. He ran a hospitality suite, with several bedrooms, in Washington – first in the Watergate Hotel and then in the Westin Grand near Capitol Hill.


The handling of the 1997 Starbucks murder case continues to raise eyebrows. Why, of all the 301 slayings that took place in DC that same year, did only these three killings attract the attention not only of the FBI but of Attorney General Reno herself? Reno has overruled her own US Attorney and called for the death penalty in the case.

There are two reasonable explanations for the federal intrusion in the case. One is that the murders took place in Georgetown, home of some of the city’s most powerful residents. The second is that one of the victims was formerly a White House intern, Mary Caitrin Mahoney, allegedly familiar with some of the licentious activities occurring there.

While there is no concrete evidence that Mahoney was specifically targeted, the heavy involvement of the federal government in what it claims was a routine murder case inevitably raises questions. The appearance of Reno, the Miss Fixit of Clinton crime and corruption investigations, is even less reassuring. Reno squashed investigations into drug and gubernatorial payoff aspects of the Department of Agriculture case, has never bothered to go after Webb Hubbell for the taxes he owes, and has repeatedly undermined the work of special prosecutors and congressional investigators. And as Wllliam Safire rightfully notes, Reno’s Justice Department “wants none of the Clinton-Gore Asian funny-money traffickers such as John Huang, Pauline Kanchanalak and Charlie Trie to face punishment that might induce them to involve any of the famous recipients of China’s largess.” The accused in the case has recanted his confession, which was acquired after extensive interrogation.

[Questions have arisen about the circumstances under which Carl Derek Cooper confessed to the Starbucks slaying in which former White House intern Caitlin Mahoney and two other workers were killed. Cooper was questioned for many hours, denied being involved, then accused someone else, and then confessed, only to recant his confession after being released by suburban Prince George’s County police and returning to DC. Why this is not your average three-death murder is explained by Newsmax]

NEWSMAX: The same week Cooper recanted, new information emerged about Mahoney’s background and her possible ties to the Monica Lewinsky case. Author David M. Hoffman, who spent a year investigating Mahoney’s murder, tells Globe Magazine’s Tom Kuncl that the Starbucks massacre came just three days after Monica told Clinton she was going to tell her parents about their relationship. According to Monica Clinton reacted angrily, telling her, “It’s a crime to threaten the President.” Hoffman’s claim is corroborated by the Starr Report. “Monica took the threat seriously,” Hoffman told Globe, “telling Linda Tripp that she feared for both their lives if her affair with Clinton ever became public.” “I don’t want to wind up like Caity Mahoney,” Monica is rumored to have told friends.

Police have charged a single suspect in the 1997 gang-style slaying of three employees of a Georgetown Starbucks. The murders have attracted attention for a number of reasons:

— Being killed in Georgetown is considered more newsworthy by local media than being murdered in less elegant parts of town.

— In the contemporary gestalt, a murder at Starbucks creates some of the same horror as a murder in a church did in earlier times.

— One of the victims, Mary Caitrin Mahoney, was formerly an intern at the White House and Monica Lewinsky was reported to have told Linda Tripp that she didn’t want to end up like her.

Police say the killings were the result of a botched holdup. Certainly, the arrest came after a long and botched investigation. It was initially hampered by the decentralization of the homicide squad shortly before the murders. Police sources complained that the move by then Chief Larry Soulsby prevented the concentration of investigative effort vital in the critical hours immediately after such a crime. Soulsby later resigned in the wake of unrelated scandals. Subsequently a police informant in the case was killed while serving as part of a sting operation in a drug case.

The first detective on the Starbucks scene called it “one of the most difficult cases I’ve ever handled.” The murders took place after closing. It is not clear how the murderer(s) gained entrance. No money was taken and no neighbors heard the ten shots that were fired. As late as a day before the arrests, police were saying that there were two gunmen involved, but now they believe that suspect Carl Derek Cooper used two weapons in the attack.

If so, he did a lot of damage in a short period, killing three people — two with one bullet each and hitting Mahoney five times. Although Mahoney was reported to have been fleeing, she was struck in the face, neck and chest. Police say that Cooper — who has been previously convicted of robbery, car theft and gun and drug violations — used two guns in other crimes. The victims’ pockets were picked but a register and a safe filled with cash were left untouched.

An obituary in the Washington Blade, reported that Mahoney, 24, had been a founder of the Baltimore Lesbian Avengers. She founded a women’s issues discussion group at Towson State University, was a board member of the 31st Street Bookstore in Baltimore, and worked on Bill Clinton’s presidential campaign as well as interning for the Clinton White House when he was newly elected.

The lawyer for suspect Cooper has complained that his client was questioned excessively without legal counsel.


MICHAEL POWELL, SARI HORWITZ, TONI LOCY, WASHINGTON POST : November 30, 1997 A type of extortion scheme known crudely as “fairy shaking” led to the arrest of a D.C. police lieutenant and toppled the police chief of the nation’s capital. It’s quite simple as extortion goes: Trail a married man out of a gay sex club. Take his license plate number. And later threaten to expose him unless he pays hush money. The term “fairy shaking” needs no definition within certain circles of the D.C. police department: A few rogue cops have been doing it for years and getting away with it, several law enforcement sources said. And it stands at the center of the case against Lt. Jeffery S. Stowe, until recently the roommate of D.C. Police Chief Larry D. Soulsby . . . It’s common knowledge that men go to the clubs that line a secluded block in Southeast Washington — clubs such as the Follies Theater and La Cage — to relax, listen to music and have sex . . . In September, someone was watching for the most vulnerable among them. The observer noted which parked cars had baby seats and bore other evidence of the straight, married life. And he wrote down the license plate numbers. In the days that followed, three men who were married with children received anonymous letters saying they had been photographed at the gay sex clubs. The letters demanded $10,000 cash from each in exchange for keeping their secrets. This wasn’t your typical, everyday extortionist, authorities say. He knew the extortion game better than almost anyone in town. He was, according to an arrest affidavit, Lt. Jeffery S. Stowe, commander of a D.C. police unit that investigates extortion and other crimes. Within two hours of Stowe’s arrest last Tuesday, his best friend on the force resigned: Chief Soulsby.


There is an epidemic of strange celebrity deaths in Washington in the 1990s. Before the Vince Foster death, the last high level suicide had been Navy Secretary James Forrestal. Murders of well-known or well-placed people were rare.

– Although his death was officially labeled a suicide, many questions have arisen concerning the passing of Admiral Mike Boorda, Chief of U.S. Naval operations

– In 1996, former CIA Director William Colby died, allegedly in a boating accident, but the facts do not adequately support this theory. For example, the retired CIA head had left his home unlocked, his computer on, and a partly eaten dinner on the table. Colby had recently become an editor of Strategic Investment which was doing investigative reporting on the Vince Foster death.

CHRISTOPHER RUDDY, PITTSBURGH, TRIBUNE-REVIEW – The body of “the Old Gray Man of the CIA,” William Colby, has been found in waters near his weekend home, but theories about his demise continue to thrive. Colby, who served as CIA director under Presidents Nixon and Ford, disappeared April 28. Maryland authorities found his body Monday morning after it washed ashore. This followed an intensive search of the Wimcoico River near Colby’s home in Rock Point, Md. Local police believe his body was lost in the cloudy waters of the Wicomico while canoeing, a favorite pastime of Colby’s. . . Last week, The New York Post’s irreverent Page Six raised concerns about Colby’s disappearance and apparent death with an article headlined “Conspiracy Crowd Snatches Colby.” “The theory among conspiracy-minded, cloak-and-dagger buffs is that Colby was assassinated so he wouldn’t spill any more agency secrets,” the gossip page began. Agency insiders reportedly resented Colby for talking to Congress about the “family jewels” – supposed illegal operations the agency conducted in the decades before Watergate. As a result, Colby lost the support of agency insiders and the Ford administration. President Ford fired Colby on Halloween 1975. Some theorists point to the similar circumstances surrounding the 1978 death of CIA deputy director John A. Paisley.

– There was also the little noted but third highest ranking alleged suicide of the period: John Millis, staff director of the Staff Director of the US House Select Committee on Intelligence who was found dead of a gunshot wound in a motel in Vienna, Virginia on June 3, 2000.

– That same month, a CIA intelligence analyst, John Muskopf, 28, was killed while walking with friends when a car drove up and someone inside shot him.

– In 1998, Sandy Hume, a Washington journalist, committed suicide in a seedy suburban motel. According to the Jerusalem Post, “the brilliant 28-year-old journalist” killed himself, “as the story goes,” over a homosexual affair with “a senior Republican [member of Congress and] confirmed supporter of Israel.”

– Investigative journalist Danny Casolaro allegedly committed suicide in a bathtub of a Martinsburg WV motel in 1991, but serious doubts have been raised concerning the incident.

– Former White House intern Mary Caitrin Mahoney was shot five times during the murder of three Starbucks employees in an execution-style slaying. No money was taken. An informant assisting police in case was murdered when sent by DC police into a botched drug sting. The handling of the 1997 Starbucks murder case continues to raise questions. Carl Derek Cooper pleaded guilty to the crimes in April 2000 after being threatened with the death penalty by Janet Reno.

– Washington attorney Paul Wilcher was found dead on a toilet in apartment. He was aid to be investigating various scandals including the October Surprise, the 1980 election campaign, drug and gun-running through Mena and the Waco assault. Was planning a TV documentary on his findings. He had delivered an extensive affidavit to Janet Reno three weeks before his death.

– Carlos Ghigliotti: 42, was found dead in his office just outside of Washington D.C. on April 28, 2000. Ghigliotti, a thermal imaging analyst hired by the House Government Reform Committee to review tape of the Waco siege, had said he determined the FBI fired shots during the incident. Ghigliotti said the tapes also confirm the Davidians fired repeatedly at FBI agents during the assault, which ended when flames raced through the compound.

FOUR CORNERS: The widow of a former top Australian intelligence officer has broken her silence about the controversial death of her husband in Washington two years ago. Sandra Jenkins is demanding a full public inquiry into the events leading up to the suicide of her husband Merv, whose body was found at his Arlington, Virginia, home on June 13, 1999, his 48th birthday. She believes her husband would be alive today if an Australian Government investigation into allegations against him had been better handled. Merv Jenkins was the Defence Intelligence Organisation’s senior man in Washington. A key part of his role was to liaise and swap information with American intelligence agencies such as the CIA. He came under investigation for allegedly passing AUSTEO (Australian Eyes Only) material to allies. At that time, early to mid 1999, the US was keen for intelligence on the Indonesia-controlled militias running rampant in East Timor before the independence vote. For Merv Jenkins, whose Washington civilian posting followed an impeccable record of military service, the investigation came as an extraordinary shock.

EDDIE DEAN, WASHINGTON CITY PAPER, JULY 30-AUG. 5, 1999: At the corner of Connecticut and R Streets, [Joyce] Chiang hopped out of the car. She said she was going to the Starbucks across the street. She’d sworn off coffee and caffeinated drinks a few years before, after her doctor warned her of an impending ulcer. What she wanted was a cup of hot herbal tea to take the chill off during the walk through Dupont Circle. She had plenty of time to make it back for her 9 p.m. phone call. No problem. I’ll be fine. Chiang stood on the corner in front of La Tomate restaurant. The car pulled away into the night. When a crime happens in Dupont Circle, authorities know where to look to find evidence: nearby Rock Creek. It has long been a favorite drop-off point for everything from guns to bodies. But it was alongside the Anacostia where a couple found Chiang’s INS identification card the next day. By then, Roger Chiang had figured that his sister had spent the night at a friend’s house-a common enough occurrence. When she didn’t come home Sunday night, though, he began to get worried. Monday afternoon, he phoned her office: She hadn’t reported to work, and nobody had heard from her. It was one thing for Joyce to spend the weekend away, but quite another for her to skip a work day without calling. Her friends told Roger they had no idea where she could be. The next day, he contacted authorities to report his sister as missing. FULL STORY

1996 : Dick Morris, the chief political strategist for President Clinton, resigns when the Star publishes details of his relationship with Sherry Rowlands, a $200-an-hour prostitute – including his foot fetish.

1992 – Senator Bob Packwood is accused of harassing a large number of women

1990: the House reprimands Massachusetts congressman Barney Frank, for – among other things – using his political influence to fix parking tickets for an intimate friend who was also a male prostitute and ran a homosexual whorehouse out of the Frank residence. Other members who got into trouble included Gary Studds of Massachusetts who seduced a young male House page and was censured by the House. Dan Crane of Illinois had sex with a female page, cried and begged forgiveness on the floor of the House and lost his next election.

It has been sometimes alleged that J Edgar Hoover made a deal with the Italian Mafia to stay out of DC, although Meyer Lansky did have a few confederates including one of the best known restaurateurs in town. By the late 1980s, however, things are changing, as reported in 1987 by Nancy Lewis in the Washington Post: “Prosecutors say their first inkling that organized crime had discovered Washington as an attractive place to do business came about 15 years ago when an undercover investigation of the city’s biggest-ever drug gang led to the conviction here of two members of the Genovese crime family. The 300-member D.C. gang was headed by Lawrence W. (Slippery) Jackson, the son of a local minister, but the massive amounts of heroin it put on the streets came from the New York mob. Killings of rival gang members, a rarity in previous decades, became frequent as drug chieftains, adopting Mafia ways, battled for control of the city’s street corners. Since then, slowly but steadily, organized crime figures have been appearing around town.”

Wrote Lewis: “What’s going on? We never had these organized crime types in the past. We had gangsters but they were our gangsters: Capitol Hill’s Joe Nesline, the Warring brothers from Foggy Bottom, Roger “Whitetop” Simkins from Petworth, even Abe “Jewboy Dietz” Plisco from Georgetown by way of Richmond. They and a handful of others organized the criminal underworld here during Prohibition and controlled it for decades afterward Now FBI agents and prosecutors here talk about gangsters arriving from crime families in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, New York and Sicily, of mob “soldiers” and “associates,” of huge drug shipments, of pizza parlors vending cocaine along with the double-cheese and anchovies, of enforcers who break legs and boast of the number of people their friends have rubbed out. This is something new. In the past, “organized crime considered Washington a small town . . . and didn’t want to fool with it,” William Garber said recently. He is an attorney who defended several local minor crime figures and watched some of the more notorious trials when he first opened his law practice in the 1950s. He added that the conventional wisdom of the day was also that “organized crime thought moving would just be pushing the FBI too far.”

In later years, however, whatever Mafia influence there was seems to fade.

1987 : Three weeks into his presidential campaign, a news team stakes out Gary Hart’s Washington house. The team will report that Hart has had a rendezvous with a young woman while his wife is away. A photo of the woman, Donna Rice, sitting on his lap near a yacht named “Monkey Business,” also surfaced and Hart’s campaign was sunk.

1985 Duke Zeibert and former Washington Bullets owner Arnold Heft plead guilty to gambling charges involving an all-male social club in Rockville known as the Progress Club.

1983 – GOP Illinois congressman Dan Crane is censured for having sex with a female page Democratic Rep. Gary Studds is censured for having sex with a male one.

1980 – Rep. Dan Quayle goes on a Florida golfing vacation with seven other men and Paula Parkinson — an insurance lobbyist who later posed nude for Playboy. Parkinson describes Quayle as a husband on the make, but says she turned him down because she was already having an affair with another congressman. Marilyn Quayle says, “anybody who knows Dan Quayle knows he would rather play golf than have sex.”

PATRICIA SULLIVAN, WASHINGTON POST – Betty Shingler Talmadge, 81, a well-known Washington socialite and businesswoman who testified against her newly divorced husband, the late Democratic Sen. Herman E. Talmadge, during a Senate ethics inquiry in the late 1970s, died May 7 of complications from Alzheimer’s disease at Piedmont Hospital in Atlanta. . . She later ran for Congress, wrote two cookbooks and turned her home in Lovejoy, Ga., into an invitation-only restaurant. . .

But it was her testimony, under subpoena, before the Senate Ethics Committee in 1979 that put her in headlines, after 22 years in Washington. Bundles of $100 bills were kept in the pocket of an overcoat in the couple’s hall closet, she testified.

The money, unreported campaign donations and reimbursements for nonexistent office expenses, were used for the family’s living costs. Mrs. Talmadge testified that she took about a third of it, between $12,000 and $15,000, in January 1974 after a fight with her then-husband. She said she used it to supplement her $50-per-week allowance and turned over the remaining 77 $100 bills from the stash to the committee. She never knew the source of the funds, she said, declaring simply, “It was a way of life.”. . .

The divorce was one of a spate on Capitol Hill. Hers caught the public’s attention partly for the brutal way she learned of it — on a television news show. She countersued, charging cruel treatment and “habitual intoxication.” The divorce cost her at least a million dollars, according to contemporaneous accounts.

“As long as I rubbed the hams and made some money and asked no questions, it was a perfect little life. As soon as I started asking questions,” she said, laughing, to a Post reporter in 1978, “I became a little old menopausal, slightly crazy lady.”

NY TIMES – After her first cookbook appeared, The New York Times asked Mrs. Talmadge how she had found the nerve to slaughter her first pig. “Real easy, honey,” she replied. “I just thought, ‘You little male chauvinist, you,’ and I went to it.”

TPR – HERMAN TALMADGE was the son of Georgia Governor Eugene Talmadge who campaigned with the pitch: “Y’all only got three friends in this world: the Lord God Almighty, the Sears Roebuck catalog, and Eugene Talmadge. And you can only vote for one of them.”

POLICE RAID THE HOME of numbers boss Roger “Whitetop” Simkins, only to find him bed ridden. They help him with his heart medicine while collecting 14 guns and gambling equipment.

In 1978 CIA official John A. Paisley is disappears. His empty boat is found near the Chesapeake Bay. A body with a shot in the head is found and officials declare it to be Paisley who had allegedly committed suicide. His wife, however, says the body is the wrong height to be her husband. He died of an apparent gunshot behind his ear. His body had been weighted with diving belts. Since no blood was found on the boat, authorities theorized Paisley first jumped into the water and then fired the shot into his head. However, murder was never ruled out in the case.

1976: Elizabeth Ray says she has been paid $14,000 a year in public funds by Ohio Rep. Wayne Hays, chairman of the House Administration Committee. “I can’t type, I can’t file, I can’t even answer the phone,” Ray tells the Washington Post. “Supposedly, I’m on the oversight committee,” she said. “But I call it the Out-of-Sight Committee.” Hays is 64 Ray is 27.

1974: Rep. Wilbur Mills is stopped by Washington police at 2 am for erratic drving. He is intoxicated and his face is scratched. A burlesque dancer known as “Fanne Fox, the Argentine Firecracker,” leaps out of the car and dives into the Tidal Basin. Her rescue is filmed by television reporter Larry Krebs. Mills is reelected but loses his chairmanship.

1973 – John Theodore Brown aka Jack Brown is indicted by a grand jury in New York. Brown flees but his codefendants are found guilty and sentenced to 18 years in prison. Brown is identified as an associate of the Tramunti family and an important link between the Italian mafia and DC black drug traffickers. According to Dan Moldea, Brown was the source of supply in at least 15 DC drug cases:

In early 1973 a meeting was held in Brookland to establish a black narcotics organization. Among those reportedly involved were a prominent restaurateur, a city official, and a banker, all familiar names in the city. Says Moldea: “By late 1973 there were rumors that the mob had decided to move back in, but the minorities were pretty solidly in control.”

Joe Nesline, who grew up around 6th & Mass NE, became the king of local gambling, with three clubs and, in the late 1960s, a wig business on F Street believed to be a front for gambling and cocaine trafficking. He reportedly runs casinos in Cuba for Meyer Lansky and worked with the Genovese family in Europe. MORE ON NESLINE

1969 In the summer, several persons involved in criminal activity meet at various locations to discuss establishing a formal organization to control the distribution of narcotics in the DC area. The operation is modeled after La Cosa Nostra and members start to refer to it as the ‘Black Mafia.’ The total membership is between 50 and 75 and crimes will include extortion, murder, robbery and protection. Says crime expert Dan Moldea, “Persons involved in illegal or quasi-legal activities were asked to donate a specified amount of money to the group. In return for this money, the person was entitled to some form of protection in their day-to-day operations. Their employees would not be robbed by members of their organization if their employees were robbed by non-members, the robbers were taken care of by the head group they wanted any person disciplined, the head group arranged for this. If any arguments arose, or disputes occurred between Black Mafia members and investors, the arguments were mediated by the head group.” Joe Nesline is the reported contact with the New York mob.

THE 1950S


GAMBLER’S BOOK – For all times, he is The Man. Sonny Reizner once called him, the Bobby Jones-Babe Ruth-Man O’War of the oddsmaking business. He exerted the single greatest influence on sports betting for a quarter of a century and provided the foundation for the industry today. . . His legendary self-effacing humor aside, Martin did what he did best for years in Las Vegas: set the numbers, a service we all but take for granted in this computer age. It wasn’t always so. This brilliant, modest, funny, funny man paved the way.

Martin first plied his trade by booking six-hit bets at Thomas Jefferson High School in East New York in Brooklyn, NY (pick three major league baseball players to get six hits cumulatively at 10-1 odds, later 6-1) graduating into football parlay cards like those issued by Gorham Press of Minneapolis fame. Martin remembers that, “I guess I was about 12 years old when I began making three-and four-team parlays, always dogs. I hit a few, running up a $600 bankroll. Sometimes I’d bet $5, a lot of money in the depression. I could have bought a whole block. . . Martin paid his way through New York University by selling parlay cards at a 25 percent commission while studying journalism and combined his knack for gambling by using out-of-town newspapers to get the inside “dope” on college basketball teams. . .

Martin quickly developed a reputation as a man who knew things, a “wise guy.” He did this by combing his out-of-town papers for information, and collecting files on every player and sport. He made out all right until the 1951 college basketball point-shaving scandals, when he was wiped out by those in on the fixes.

He moved to Washington, D.C. in 1952, recalling, “A bookmaker there hired me to advise him on fighters…”The bookmaker was Julius Silverman and Martin was dead broke. He made his living in D.C., working out of a building near the old State Department, surviving there until 1959 when Martin, Silverman and Meyer “Nutsy” Schwartz were arrested in the Foggy Bottom row house. Their organization had become the number one boxing book in the country when Martin and his two partners were arrested. They were each given 2 1/2 to 5 years in prison. Martin notes, “I failed to procure diplomatic immunity.” His shop shut the doors in 1962 with Robert Kennedy’s war on gambling in full swing.

Duke Ziebert, the famed Washington restaurateur came to Martin’s aid. Ziebert hired Edward Bennett Williams, renowned trial lawyer and later owner of the Washington Redskins, to take the case all the way to the Supreme Court, using an invasion of privacy defense. Bennett bet Martin he’d sweep the judges, 9-0 in the Silverman vs. United States landmark case. Martin bet him 10-1 he wouldn’t. Martin was quite happy to pay him the $1,000 when each man was forced to pay a $5,000 fine but he escaped jail time after surveillance used to gather evidence was ruled illegal and a violation of the defendants’ Fourth Amendment rights against unreasonable search and seizure.

Martin left Washington and moved around the country, first to Miami, then back to Washington. He says, “I got into a little trouble in Houston back in the early 60s. They claimed I was bookmaking I thought I was just having fun. A difference of opinion, I guess.” Seeking greener pastures, he eventually moved west in 1963 to become the official oddsmaker at Harry Gordon’s Churchill Downs Race and Sports Book in Las Vegas in 1967.

1952 : Various local mobsters are called before the Senate District Subcommittee including Emmett Waring, numbers banker Abe Plisco, Roger “Whitetop” Simkins, who ran the numbers in downtown. Part of the testimony reveals the use of “ice,” or payoffs, to local cops. Simkins refuses to identify himself on the grounds that it might incriminate him.

“The Capital Underworld,” 1932: “Compared with New York and Chicago, Washington is not a wicked city. It experiences brief flashes of gang warfare which the local press tries to play up as important. It revels in the murder mysteries of Mary Baker, Navy Department clerk, and of Virginia McPherson, daughter-in-law of the assistant to the Secretary of War. It is baffled by the robbery of the Salvadorian Legation, accomplished as a larger consignment of Scotch whisky had arrived and was piled up in the rear garden. And it is horrified at the nocturnal operations of more than a hundred Negro degenerates who swooped down regularly upon the encamped Bonus Army as soon as it became dark. Compared with the big-time racketeering of New York and Chicago all of this probably is puerile and petty, but it plays an important and influential part in the life of the nation’s capital. Furthermore, Washington’s underworld has two or three distinctions of which in a modest sort of way it can really boast. One of these is the ease of securing immunity. The capital may witness few crimes, but in few cases is the culprit ever brought to justice. Another distinction is the complete and unrestrained freedom of the neighboring counties of Maryland, where an amazing White Slave traffic, operating through a chain of tea houses, furnishes recreation to capital residents. Finally, Washington probably boasts more small, independent bootleggers per capita than any other city in the country and has established a unique and universal system of liquor distribution. . . . Police occasionally interrupt these too-obvious law-breakers, but the great rank and file of bootleggers and petty criminals who ply their trade in the nation’s capital enjoy an immunity almost unsurpassed even in New York and Chicago. This is due to three factors. The first is the influence of Henry Mencken’s Free State of Maryland, which surrounds the District of Columbia on three sides. The second is the natural laziness of the capital police. The third is the prestige and pull exercised by so large a number of those enjoying official status, a factor which makes convictions difficult and disrupts police morale.”

Izzy Einstein, the famous prohibition agent, keeps a record of how long it takes to get a drink in various cities. DC comes out badly. Not only does it take an hour (as opposed to 11 minutes in Pittsburgh and 17 in Atlanta) but he has to ask directions from a cop.

Emmitt “Little Man” Warring and his brothers Leo Paul and Charles “Rags” run the numbers in the late 1930s. According to a Washington Post article by Nancy Lewis [3/1/87], “Emmitt, the ninth of 10 children born to a Foggy Bottom barrel maker and his Irish immigrant wife, was the leader of the brothers’ numbers business. Before then, in Prohibition, Warring had run the Washington area’s version of “Thunder Road,” bringing rye and corn whiskey from Prince George’s County and southern Maryland stills to the city’s “liquor drops,” using Georgetown teen-agers who drove “high-powered touring cars” for $50 to $100 a trip. The Warrings’ shift from illegal booze to illegal numbers — which they preferred to call the “commission brokerage business” — was soon bringing in $2 million a year, and Emmitt’s “Little Man” moniker described only his 5-foot 4 1/2 inch stature . . . The brothers operated out of a third-floor room at 2423 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, but their domain was all of Georgetown and Foggy Bottom, and by 1936 they had at least 56 employees – the number listed on their income tax returns.” The brothers are indicted on tax evasion charges in 1938, but the trial ends in a hung jury. The second trial ends in a mistrial after the judge reports that Emmitt Warring has offered a juror $600 and given whiskey to a US Marshal to pass to the jury. The third trial ends after two months, when all three brothers pleaded guilty. The business keeps on and is earning at least $7.5 million a year by the late 1940s.

Sam Smith, Progressive Review – There was a club on the edge of town owned by Jimmy LaFontaine. It was a club with standards, as Gaillard Hunt described in a Prohibition era novel:

Couldn’t sit here all night, tho. Have to do something, Do the usual thing — the best thing. Whatever happens eleven and ten is still twenty-one and aces still beat kings.

He slipped the bottle into his coat pocket and stood out in the street. Far down the street a taxi was coming. It slowed down as it got closer, then stopped. He got in and said, “Jimmy Lafontaine’s.”

About the time the taxi turned into Bladensburg road the whisky began to hit him. It made him less mad and the knot in his belly began to loosen, By the time they got to the place he was feeling almost good.

The doorman looked at him sharply, then shook his head. Peter tried to argue with him, but he only said, “You know the house rules. No one been drinking can get in.” He whistled to the taxi which was loitering in the drive and shut the door.

Peter got back in the taxi and. said, “Son of a. bitch. That guy’s idea of a drunk is same as Volstead’s. Let’s go back to town.”

The doorman was as famous as LaFontaine, as Shirley Povich described in a 1989 Washington Post article:

In the 1920s and 󈧢s there were also in Washington indoor sports such as dice-throwing, poker games, blackjack and track odds on the races everywhere. One temple of chance, located in Bladensburg, just across the District line, was known as “Jimmy’s” it was impeccably conducted by the legendary Jimmy LaFontaine, who stood for no nonsense by anybody and was proud of a clientele that included many stylish Washington names.

At Jimmy’s a huge fellow named Josh Licarione frisked everybody at the door to help keep the peace. Licarione, it seems, had played football for a time at George Washington University. The story goes that after an especially heroic victory at Griffith Stadium, the president of GW was overjoyed enough to visit the team in the locker room and not only praised the gladiators but continued told them, “Any of you boys who are in the vicinity of my office, come in and pass the time of day with me.”

That was when Licarione said, “By the way, where is that school of yours?”

Povich was wrong about one thing: the club wasn’t over the city line it was on it. I had sometimes heard that one advantage of this was that if, for example, a raid were pending from the Maryland side, LaFontaine would simply lock the Maryland gates, giving his customers time to evacuate through the DC entrance. But Tom Kelly, who covered the beat, tells me it wasn’t as complicated: if there were reports of illegal activities, the called police department would simply say (with at least 50% certainty) that it wasn’t in their jurisdiction.

A Washingtonian who grew up in Brookland remembers hearing about the club and its ten to twelve foot wooden walls. He says a relative who once one a lot of money at the club was driven home by Fontaine’s security people to make sure he made it safely.


In 1863 General Meade replaced General Hooker three days before the Battle of Gettysburg. Meade will only have a fort named after him, while Hooker lends his name to a whole synonym. The following is from a report by the Smithsonian Institution on archeological work done near the site of the National Museum of the American Indian:

“With the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, the sleepy town of Washington was dramatically transformed as its population swelled with newcomers. The new arrivals included many men who had signed up to fight for the Union. Throughout the war, thousands of soldiers were encamped throughout the city, either awaiting orders to fight, manning forts to protect the Union capital from Rebel attack, or languishing from disease or wounds in hospitals throughout the city. Along with the soldiers came government bureaucrats, freed and escaped slaves, businessmen, salesmen, and con men, as well as the camp followers and prostitutes who sought to profit from the increased demand for their services. The Army’s provost marshal, who kept a list of the city’s bawdy houses during the war ostensibly to keep them under surveillance, concluded that there were 450 registered houses in Washington in 1862. While some prostitutes worked in brothels, the majority probably plied their trade as streetwalkers. By 1863, the Evening Star newspaper estimated that Washington had about 5,000 prostitutes . . . When the war came to a close, Washington remained overcrowded, and its roads, parks, and the canal were in shambles as a result of four years of overuse and neglect. The area between Pennsylvania Avenue and the Mall, which is presently occupied by the Federal Triangle complex, had become an infamous crime-ridden neighborhood rife with the stench of the nearby canal, which had become little more than an open sewer. Known for its rampant prostitution, the area was widely referred to as Hooker’s Division, a wry double entendre. Indeed many of its occupants were “hookers,” a term for prostitutes used since the early nineteenth century. Furthermore, the region was reported to have been visited frequently by the troops in Union General Joseph Hooker’s division, which was encamped nearby.” MORE

1888: Tolls are lifted on the Aqueduct Bridge, providing easier access for Geogetowners to the disreputable pleasures of Rosslyn which included saloons, prostitution, gambling, chicken and bulldog fights, and two race tracks. Eventually, a reform movement will force these establishments out of Rosslyn, some of them moving to Georgetown. Jimmy LeFontaine, who ran a gambling house in Rosslyn becomes a prominent Georgetown citizen. Another waterfront merchant is said to control the local numbers.

Almost half of all prostitutes in DC have been found to be HIV-positive.

The Federal Triangle – bordered by Pennsylvania Ave., Constitution Ave., and 15th St – used to be known as “Murder Bay,” the most notorious neighborhood in DC. It was later called “Hooker’s Division” after the Civil War general responsible for the area.

In the Capitol Rotunda is a fresco called “The Apotheosis of Washington,” painted by Constantine Brumidi. It features 13 angels welcoming George Washington into heaven. The angels were alleged modeled on 13 local prostitutes.


NATIONAL ENQUIRER – A book reveals startling new details about 28-year-old Salvadoran immigrant Ingmar Guandique, who now awaits trial for Chandra’s murder.

Chandra was just 24 when she disappeared on May 1, 2001. Her body was found a year later in D.C.’s Rock Creek Park.

The hunt for her killer gripped America – fueled by the revelation that she’d been having a secret affair with former California Congressman Gary Condit. But it wasn’t until nearly eight years after the murder that illegal alien Guandique was indicted in the pretty young woman’s slaying. He is already serving a 10-year sentence for brutal knife attacks on two women in the same park.

“Detectives are confident Guandique is the guy – there is new forensic evidence that directly links him to Chandra’s murder,” said former Washington, D.C., homicide detective Rod Wheeler, who consulted on the case.

The book also provides new details about the married ex-congressman caught up in the case. While Gary Condit was never named a suspect by police, he came under intense media scrutiny and the revelation of the affair led to his loss in his bid for re-election in 2002.

The authors claim that the FBI did tests on Chandra’s underwear and found Condit’s DNA.

But when the focus of the investigation switched to Guandique, already jailed for the two other vicious knife attacks, detectives found a photo of Chandra – ripped from a magazine – in his cell and the chilling tattoo on his chest.

The detectives “noted the large tattoo of a naked woman with long black hair – and the similarities to Chandra,” says a source.

“They asked if that was ‘some sort of souvenir’ that reminded him of the murder. He smirked, and giggled, but didn’t answer.”

Washington Post – D.C. police and prosecutors said that they will charge a 27-year-old Salvadoran man with first-degree murder in the killing of Chandra Levy nearly eight years ago during a sexual assault along a desolate hiking trail deep in Rock Creek Park. Saying they had solved a case that transfixed the nation, authorities issued an arrest warrant for Ingmar Guandique, who is serving a 10-year prison sentence for attacking two other women at knifepoint in the park around the time the 24-year-old federal government intern disappeared. . .

According to the affidavit, on May 1, 2001, the day Levy disappeared, another young woman walking in the park was accosted by a Hispanic man. The woman said she ran away and later left the country on a preplanned trip. A year later, still living abroad, she saw a photograph of Guandique in a newspaper when his name first surfaced as a possible suspect in the Levy case. The affidavit says the woman recognized him as the man she saw in the park the day Levy disappeared. . .

Late last year, detectives interviewed key witnesses, including one who said Guandique had written letters claiming responsibility for the killing. The witness became nervous and later during a phone conversation questioned Guandique about the alleged admission. “During this recorded conversation Guandique acknowledged that he had told [the witness] about the ‘girl who’s dead,’ ” the police affidavit said.

Another witness told police in November that he had known Guandique for many years and that Guandique boasted that he was a member of the Salvadoran gang Mara Salvatrucha, or MS-13. He allegedly said that he was known in the gang as “Chuckie” — after a demonic doll from a series of horror movies — because he had a reputation for “killing and chopping up people.” Guandique allegedly told the witness that he had raped many women after lying in wait near a dirt path in the park, that he would tie them up and then sexually assault them. . .

Another witness, identified as “W11,” told police that Guandique confessed to killing Levy, but some of the details were different. . .

Levy had looked up the National Park Service headquarters – aka the Klingle Mansion – on the Internet as one of her last known acts in her Dupont Circle apartment. Her body was found about a mile north of the mansion, which is about three miles from her apartment.

Levy’s apartment was about four blocks from the former home of Joyce Chaing who had previously been found murdered in federal parkland in the capital. Chaing was last seen on an urban street corner in Dupont Circle.

Police did not search Levy’s apartment for nine days.

Her body was found about three weeks after her disappearance by a man walking his dog despite an extensive police search of the area nearby. They claimed they had not searched the part where the body was discovered because of its remoteness.

The sexual attacks in that area of Rock Creek Park stopped after Guandique was arrested.

MIKE WISE, SF CHRONICLE, 2007 – Although he is no longer an FBI agent, Brad Garrett still visits the steep, wooded hillside in a Washington, D.C., park where the skeletal remains of Chandra Levy, a federal intern from Modesto, Calif., were found five years ago this week, a year after she disappeared.

No one has been charged in the killing of the 24-year-old, whose disappearance generated enormous publicity after authorities revealed that she had been having a relationship with her married hometown congressman, Gary Condit. The Democrat was defeated in 2002 by his former aide, Dennis Cardoza.

“The key to cold cases is being creative,” Garrett, a private investigator and a consultant to ABC News, said in a phone interview. Until his mandatory retirement last year at the age of 58, Garrett was a high-profile agent who had solved some of the bureau’s most intractable cases — but not the Levy slaying.

“I go to Rock Creek Park sometimes, yeah, and go over the crime scene, over and over again,” he said. “What have I missed? The whole atmospherics is very important. It’s very frustrating that it’s not resolved. It’s troubling.”

On May 1, 2001, Levy used her computer in her apartment in the Dupont Circle area of northwest Washington to look up the National Park Service headquarters in Rock Creek Park, about a mile distant. She had recently completed an internship at the U.S. Bureau of Prisons and planned to return to Modesto, according to her mother, Susan Levy. Friends and family became alarmed when Levy was not heard from, and a search began. It wasn’t until a year and three weeks later, on May 22, 2002, that her remains were found in the 1,700-acre park. .

The Washington Metropolitan Police Department lists the death as one of 6,000 cold cases. Since the intern’s disappearance, the case has been investigated by Detective Ralph Durant, a 37-year veteran of the department. In a phone interview, Durant said, “There are still persons of interest, yes, but we can’t tell you who they are. We still get phone calls and e-mails.”. .

Initially, media attention focused on Condit, the Modesto lawmaker 30 years Levy’s senior. Police have said repeatedly that they do not consider him a suspect. In the years since, Condit and his family have been embroiled in several lawsuits. He and his wife, Carolyn, sued American Media Inc., publisher of the National Enquirer, claiming they had been defamed by the supermarket tabloid. The suits were settled. No terms were disclosed. Condit also settled a suit against Vanity Fair magazine columnist Dominick Dunne.

ALLAN LENGEL, SARI HORWITZ WASHINGTON POST – Joe McCann, a private investigator who found one of Chandra Levy’s leg bones in Rock Creek Park this month, was happy to provide D.C. police detectives with details of the discovery. But during an interview at police headquarters, the detectives asked McCann if he would submit to a polygraph test and seemed to question the veracity of his story, according to sources familiar with the incident. McCann, a former D.C. homicide detective hired by the Levy family’s attorney, was insulted by the request — and declined. Yesterday, D.C. Police Chief Charles H. Ramsey said it is standard procedure in major cases to ask witnesses with crucial information to take a polygraph . . . But former law enforcement officials who know McCann said the polygraph request was insulting and a possible way to divert attention from the real question: Why didn’t D.C. police find the bone during an earlier search of that section of the park? “It’s not routine” to ask for a polygraph in instances such as McCann’s, said defense lawyer Louis H. Hennessey, who headed the D.C. police homicide unit in the mid-1990s. “I think they’re looking like fools and they’re trying to cast aspersions on other people.”

ROLL CALL – D.C. Metropolitan Police Department officials investigating the death of Washington intern Chandra Levy have interviewed a man serving a 10-year prison sentence for attacking two women in Rock Creek Park last year. D.C. Metro Police investigators have “talked to” Ingmar Guandeque, who was arrested in July 2001 after attacking two females (one in May and one in July) who were jogging along the Broad Branch trail in Rock Creek Park . . . A second official close to the Levy investigation said that while Guandeque was interviewed after Levy’s disappearance last year, investigators are now taking a closer look at him since the intern’s body was discovered. “Clearly there are some coincidences and links — just because of the proximity of where he [committed his crimes],” said a source close to the investigation.

. . . The first attack occurred in mid-May 2001, at 6:30 p.m., about two weeks after Levy disappeared. In that case, Guandeque came upon an unnamed female jogger, attacking her from behind while brandishing a knife. According to a press release issued Feb. 8 by the office of the U.S. Attorney for the District of Columbia, the victim reported that Guandeque grabbed her around the neck and pulled her to the ground, where her portable radio fell off. She also reported that Guandeque bit her when she tried to push him away. Guandeque fled the scene of the crime, leaving the radio beside his victim.

On July 1, 2001, he attacked another female jogger at approximately 7:30 p.m., running up behind her as she reached the crest of a hill and grabbing her from behind. The woman struggled, and when Guandeque loosened his grip on her she managed to get away and report the incident to the U.S. Park Police, who located Guandeque and arrested him.

THERE REMAIN VARIOUS possibilities. For example, if, as some have alleged, there is a tie – either direct or coincidental – between this case and powerful individuals and their activities, there is a considerable probability that the case will never be solved or that a straw perpetrator will be charged with the crime. For example, some stories have suggested a connection with an S&M sex ring in which a number of well-known individuals are believed to have participated. As USA Today’s Tom Sequeri put it delicately, there are “dark aspects of this story that we can’t report yet.” This is the sort of thing that Washington is highly skilled at covering up and in this case there may be more than adequate motive, especially since the DC police were badly embarrassed in 1997 by revelations of the practice of “fairy shaking,” in which a cop followed a married man out of a gay sex club, got his license plate number, and later threatened to expose him unless he paid hush money . . . There also continue to be doubts about the handling of the last high profile DC murder, the Starbucks case in which the alleged perp confessed and then recanted. Added to the curiosities about the case was the fact that of all the 301 slayings that took place in DC in 1997, only these three killings attracted the attention not only of the FBI but of Attorney General Reno herself. Reno overruled her own US Attorney and called for the death penalty in the case. STARBUCKS CASE

EARLY RETURNS SUGGEST some confusion over whether the body was buried or not. The two Washington dailies divided on this crucial question:

WASHINGTON POST – Detectives believe the body was not in any kind of grave, but was simply left on the forest floor, where dirt and leaves eventually covered it, said law enforcement sources who spoke on condition that they not be identified. Police found “less of the body than more,” they said, possibly because of animals.

WASHINGTON TIMES – Even before the dental match was made, investigators felt strongly they had found the missing former intern: One of the items found near the remains was a gold ring engraved with the initials “C.L.” One law-enforcement source told The Washington Times the ring was found in a shallow grave with some of the remains. “The shallow grave would take away the self-inflicted wound theory,” the source said.

OTHER ISSUES: The Washington Post reports, “The skull, which was not complete, was cracked, although the cause was unclear. All the bones that were discovered were found within five yards of the skull.” Why was the skull cracked? . . . The just jogging theory is countered by the terrain. Writes the Washington Times: “Tansy Blumer, 59, who lives on Davenport Road about 100 yards west of where the body was found, said the two-lane, winding road is not a typical jogging path. ‘There are no sidewalks or shoulders,’ she said. ‘It’s not a big jogging area. You can walk on park trails, but they are difficult and not well-known trails, and they are definitely not for running.'”

THE WEEKLY GLOBE reports charges by James Robinson – attorney for one of Gary Condit’s ex-lovers – that Chandra Levy was killed on orders from two well known politicians – a governor and a former presidential candidate – who belonged to an alternative sex ring. Robinson alleges that “this story is bigger than Watergate” and that Levy was killed because she was ready to blow the whistle on the sex club. The Globe offers no evidence to support Robinson’s claim.

ALLAN LENGEL AND PETULA DVORAK, WASHINGTON POST: D.C. police escalated their dispute with Rep. Gary A. Condit and his attorney, dismissing the results of a privately administered polygraph as having “no investigative value” and suggesting that they still may need to talk to the congressman about his relationship with missing intern Chandra Levy. The FBI has reviewed the results of Condit’s polygraph but was unable to match specific questions to the graphs that show the congressman’s reaction, Police Chief Charles H. Ramsey said in an interview. The results were presented in such a fashion that analysts had “no way of telling with certainty the results of each question,” Ramsey said.

ONE OF THE LEADS being investigated in the Chandra Levy case is that Levy was murdered by a professional hit man involved in the local gay S&M scene. Whether or not this proves to be the case, the mere possibility has created unusual problems on Capitol Hill and for the DC police. We hear that some big names on the Hill are extremely nervous at the moment – not because of the Levy mystery itself but because what such a solution might reveal. The MPD could also face possible blowback because of its involvement a few years back in a major gay blackmail scandal, perhaps involving some of the same players.

Make no mistake about it. This is a big case. One classic solution would be to declare it a suicide or to find someone – such as a criminal already facing a murder rap – to take the fall as part of a plea bargain. For example, at least two fairly recent alleged suicides quickly fell down the memory hole – those involving Sandy Hume and House Intelligence Committee staff director John Millis – despite reasonable unanswered questions. And, of course, there remains the big one: the unsolved death of Vince Foster.

WILLIAM WALKER, TORONTO STAR: Washington police also revealed they are investigating the possibility 24-year-old Chandra Levy may have been slain by a professional killer skilled in the disposal of bodies . . . Levy’s purse, wallet, personal identification and credit cards were all left in her apartment, along with a laptop computer and her packed bags prepared for a return trip home to attend her University of Southern California graduation ceremony. All that was missing from her apartment were her keys. Police found no signs of a struggle or forced entry and nothing was stolen. [Chief Charles] Ramsey confirmed that although Levy was last seen April 30, a search of her laptop computer revealed that she was on the Internet visiting travel Web sites the next day, on May 1, for about three hours up until 1 p.m. . . . [Levy family lawyer] Martin said his own investigation, conducted on behalf of the Levy family by two retired Washington homicide detectives, indicates the young woman went to meet someone she knew. “For some reason, Chandra appears to have been lured, called, or brought out of the apartment expecting to return,” Martin said.

JAMES RISEN & RAYMOND BONNER, NY TIMES: Washington police investigating the disappearance of the government intern Chandra Ann Levy have found no evidence that would link her case to other recent missing-person cases involving young women in the capital, law enforcement officials said today. In particular, investigators for the Metropolitan Police Department have reviewed two cases involving women whose bodies were recovered in the Washington area, Joyce Chiang and Christine M. Mirzayan. Ms. Chiang, a 28-year-old lawyer at the Immigration and Naturalization Service, disappeared in January 1999, after last being seen in the Dupont Circle area, a few blocks from where Ms. Levy, 24, lived. Her body was discovered three months later on the Virginia side of the Potomac River, but the authorities were never able to determine the cause of death. Ms. Mirzayan, a 28-year-old intern at the National Research Council in Washington, disappeared on Aug. 1, 1998. Her body was found in a wooded area near Georgetown University the next day. Her head had been crushed. No one has been arrested in either case. There are some striking similarities between those cases and the Levy one. All three women were Californians in their 20’s and had similar physical characteristics. Like Ms. Levy, Ms. Mirzayan was an intern, while Ms. Chiang lived in the same neighborhood as Ms. Levy. MORE

AS WE HAVE NOTED, the Chandra Levy disappearance case may be far more complicated that it first appeared. For example, there are now possible ties to a local gay S&M group. The story is being kept under wraps by news media lawyers – Newsweek and the Village Voice have both spiked articles – but this much can be told: A former Republican congressman wrote a lurid account for Newsmax, allegedly based on knowledgeable sources, that claimed Levy to have been the victim of a gay prostitute who has since returned to his native country. Newsmax quickly removed the story, but it has been the subject of intense media investigation since.

The Levy case has also revived interest in another woman’s disappearance two years ago, not far from Levy’s apartment. The Starbucks mentioned below, incidentally, is in the same block and across the street from the Review’s long-time former office. La Tomate serves as the Review’s conference room. The site is also near one of the numerous locations where Vince Foster case witness Patrick Knowlton found himself under overt surveillance – a technique used by intelligence agencies for intimidation – in the aftermath of his visit to Ft. Marcy Park.

TIMOTHY J. BURGER, NY DAILY NEWS: The Chandra Levy case isn’t the first brush with controversy for the Condit boys. Rep. Gary Condit’s two brothers, one a cop and one a convicted drug addict, have both had their share of problems. Sgt. Burl Condit, 55, was one of several officers who were caught up in a 1999 scandal involving the improper sale of old guns belonging to the Modesto Police Department. The officers were allowed to take one gun each under the condition they would eventually pay for them. Condit, however, took nine and there was no record he ever paid for them, according to a department investigation. Condit was never charged with wrongdoing. He later returned four of the guns, but said he no longer owned the other five weapons, The Modesto Bee reported . . . Burl Condit also was sued last year by a credit agency over a $2,300 cell phone bill and was ordered to pay, court records show. The youngest Condit brother, Darrell, 49, – labeled a drug addict by a judge in 1984 – has been in and out of jail since a 1979 forgery conviction in the Condits’ hometown of Tulsa, Okla., files show. He has since been nabbed on charges including theft, DUI, heroin and psilocybin possession and, in 1999 for smoking pot – while in jail. He also was charged with assaulting Modesto deputies in 1989 with a hammer handle. MORE

Like a Box of Chocolates, you never know what you’re going to get

A gun in ANYBODY’S hand when being chased or confronted by a police officer, is “Like a Box of Chocolates”…..You never know what you’re going to get. Sometimes it was a “Squirt Gun” most of the time it’s real. If that 13-year-old DID have a real pistol in his hand, who do you blame? The parent(s) for their failure in raising that child? Well, no. You can be the best parent(s) in the world, it’s still like a Box of Chocolates. After a wonderful childhood of perfect parenting, that child can either end up a “Normal” human being like he or she is supposed to, or he/she ends up being a Serial Killer (or anything else in between).

Did society fail that child? Quite possibly, with whatever you want to examine as a root cause, if society is to blame, wither it’s the “Programming” our children receive through violent video games, movies, etcetera. Again, it’s like that Box of Chocolates. Some kids grow up with all that negative “Programming” and buy two assault rifles and kill eight people at a FedEx facility. In that case, it’s been reported that the 19-year-old kid who murdered all those people, and then killed himself, had some serious mental issues.

Most children survive all the negative “Programming” and become normal adults. This is not a statement on “Gun Control”. It’s a statement on what we have become as a society. Bloody ridiculous in my opinion. I grew up in the 50’s playing “Cowboys and Indians”. Sometimes I was an Indian, sometimes I was a Cowboy. I didn’t like it as much when I had to be an Indian after drawing straws because all we knew about Indians back then was what was portrayed in the movies, and what we weren’t taught in school….that is, we were not taught that the “White Man” had subjected the “Originals” as I call them, to much more than what we call, “Apartheid” conditions and treatment. I didn’t grow up hating Indians because my mother had “Indian” friends.

Certainly, in the case of Brandon Hole, he was one of those “Chocolates” in the box that had a lot of nuts in it, and the “System” that WAS in place to prevent him from legally purchasing those two assault rifles completely, and utterly failed, 100%. In the case of Adam Toledo, if he DID have a weapon in his hand, as excruciatingly sad as it is for his parent(s), family, and friends, he’s dead because he had a gun in his hand.

Time will bring out the truth, and if he did NOT have a weapon in his hand, that Police Officer should be charged, because at the very least, he was negligently responsible, homicidally negligent.

I’ll probably get bashed by the “Right” and the “Left” for this essay, and you know what? I COULD give a “Flying Fuck”. I’m just sharing my OWN thoughts, no one else’s. What are YOUR thoughts and comments? If you ended up here because of my post on farcecrap, please feel free to go back to my farcecrap post and share your thoughts/opinions/suggestions. Let’s start a serious discussion.

Perhaps if we can get enough people sharing their thoughts and opinions, we can eventually come up with the right solution to the problem.

Peace & Abide, La paz y la morada, السلام والالتزام , שלום ושמירה, Paix et Demeure, Խաղաղությունը եւ մնալը, Мир и пребывание,, 平和と遵守, 和平與恪守, Aştî û Abad, صلح و عبید, Fred och Abide, Kapayapaan at Patuloy, Frieden und Bleiben, Mir i Ostanite, शांति और निवास, Hòa bình và ở lại, Мир и Абиде, שלום און בלייַבן, สันติภาพและการปฏิบัติ, Mir in bivanje,

Yadhum oore yaavarum kelir, “The World Is One Family”

Dr. T. C. Saxe, DD, RSISHE

For those who have been keeping up with my progress with “The Dead Armadillo” story, here’s a PDF link to the latest:

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A guide to retiring in Germany

The German state pension: a guide to the German pension system

Find out if you can claim a German pension an expat. This guide.

Nawalny Veröffentlicht Investigatives Video Über Putin | Machtkampf In Russland

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Putin´s berühmtester Kritiker Nawalny veröffentlichte vor einigen Stunden ein investigatives Antikorruptionsvideo gegen den russischen Präsidenten. Innerhalb weniger Stunden wurde das Video bereits 18 Millionen mal angeklickt. Studio Berlin veröffentlicht das fast 2 Stunden lange Video ungekürzt.

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The Impact of the Equal Rights Amendment on Representation in Under Construction between 1980 to 1983

1980 marked the beginning of a transitional time for female representation and acceptance of feminist ideas in the United States and North Hennepin Community College (NHCC). 1980 was an election year, which helped to bring women’s rights, and especially the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), into the national conversation. Although the ERA failed to be ratified, this conversation affected the ways that women lived their lives. At North Hennepin Community College, national discussion of the ERA translated into more female representation in the arts and literary magazine Under Construction. The increase in female representation comprised of an increase in female writers contributing to the magazine, as well as an increase in stories with feminist themes.

Before exploring the ways that the ERA affected female representation in Under Construction, it is important to understand the arguments present on both sides of the debate surrounding the ERA during the late 1970s through the early 1980s. It is also important to note that the debate surrounding the ERA was heavily influenced by both pro and anti-feminist ideologies. The ERA itself states that, “Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex” (“The Equal Rights Amendment” n.d.). The original goal of the ERA was to ensure that women could not be excluded from laws passed by the federal or state governments that granted legal rights (Weber 2008). Feminist groups hoped that passage of the ERA would, among other things, provide more opportunities for women in the workplace by allowing women legal recourse in the face of gender discrimination, as well as providing strong legal protection for reproductive rights (Weber 2008).

During the 1970s, Phyllis Schlafly became one of the biggest opponents to the ERA (Weber 2008). Her arguments against the ERA appealed to women who were happy to adhere to traditional female gender roles by staying home to raise children while their husbands worked to earn the family income, and felt that their way of life was being ridiculed by feminists who overemphasized the importance of women in the workplace (Weber 2008). Opponents of the ERA claimed that the amendment would only benefit working women by nullifying laws that required a husband to provide for his family (Weber 2008). Another concern was that passage of the ERA would eliminate the requirement that the military draft only accept men (Weber 2008). This not only concerned opponents of the ERA and proponents of traditional gender roles, but also women that held any beliefs about feminism and were afraid of facing combat. Finally, opponents of the ERA warned that its passage would legalize gay marriage and abortion, which they claimed would threaten the traditional structure of the American family (Weber 2008).

Now that the arguments on both sides of the ERA debate have been established, it is important to look at the ERA’s history. On March 22, 1972, the ERA had been passed by both the House and Senate. The next step was to get 38 states to ratify the ERA, but by 1978, only 35 states had done so (“The Equal Rights Amendment” n.d.). Congress had originally placed a seven year limit to pass the amendment, which would have meant that 1979 was the year it would expire (“The Equal Rights Amendment” n.d.). However, in 1978 Congress decided to extend that deadline to June 30, 1982 (“The Equal Rights Amendment” n.d.). This meant that women’s rights and the ERA were very much a part of the national discussion as the 1980 election rolled around.

By reading the student produced newspaper the North Star, it is clear that the outcome of the 1980 election would greatly affect the fate of the ERA. An article from October 30, 1980 discusses a lecture given by Gloria Steinem, a then prominent leader of the feminist movement. During her lecture, she says that if Ronald Reagan won the election, “Women’s rights will suffer enormously and the ERA will probably not be passed (qtd. From Sievert 1980).” Other articles demonstrate how popular discussions about women’s rights had become at the time. An article from May 29, 1980 called “Salary Equity is Aim of NHCC Seminar for Women,” discusses how a man and a woman can have the same job and qualifications, but the man will still earn more money on average (Unknown 1980). The goal of this seminar was to teach women salary negotiation skills, in an attempt to lessen the wage gap (Unknown 1980). The fact that Ronald Reagan did win the 1980 election turned out to be a massive setback for the ERA, as the Republican party decided to remove its support for the amendment (“The Equal Rights Amendment” n.d.). This spurred ERA supporters to increase their efforts, and as a result, national discussion of the ERA was heightened in 1981 and 1982. Despite this, the ERA remained three states short of ratification by the June 30, 1982 deadline, which effectively killed the bill (“The Equal Rights Amendment” n.d.).

It was in this environment, with both pro and anti-ERA groups attempting to either kill or pass the amendment by the 1982 deadline, that the ERA affected female representation in Under Construction during the early 1980s. To understand how this happened, we must first take a comprehensive look at who the magazine was representing in the issues between 1980 through 1983. The Fall 1980 issue of Under Construction is where we will begin. The literary advisor of this issue was Dyan McClimon, and the art advisor was Frank Schreiber. The literary section of the Fall 1980 issue of Under Construction only contains eight short stories, and no poetry. This issue is also made up of stories with disparate themes. The longest story is called “Grady” by Jack U. Bell, and is about the title character and his time stationed in the Philippines during World War II. The story details how Grady would dig holes on the island base where he was stationed to hide his beer stash in case resupply shipments were late. Despite this, Grady proves to be very heroic, and stays cool under pressure when a rookie radio operator is electrocuted. The narrator also finds out that, after Grady’s wife died, he refused to be promoted to any rank higher than Private First Class, despite deserving promotions after he had earned a Purple Heart, three Silver Stars, and a Navy Cross (Bell 1980).

Although 62.5% of the stories in the 1980 issue of Under Construction are authored by women, the only story with feminist themes is called “Shana” by Marilyn Bahr. This story details the title character’s relationship with her abusive husband Denny. Shana spends most of her time cleaning her house because Denny rarely allows her to socialize, and has also forbidden her from working. Shana used to be an art teacher and she misses it. One day a neighbor comes to her door and asks if Shana would like to teach art for a summer festival the town is throwing. Shana hesitantly agrees, knowing that Denny will not like it. The neighbor gives Shana a bundle of art supplies and leaves. When Denny comes home later that evening, he flies into a rage and violently beats Shana while throwing the art supplies around the room. In self-defense, Shana stabs him to death with a pair of scissors that had come with the art supplies (Bahr 1980).

The other stories that make up the Fall 1980 issue of Under Construction consist of an essay about how to write well, a twist on the Hansel and Gretel fairy tale, an essay about human potential, a story about attending protests, a story about a beloved horse’s death, and a story about a private investigator. The themes of these stories vary a great deal, meaning there is no cohesive theme that unites this issue of Under Construction. The feminist themes found in the story “Shana” make up 12.5% of the themes for the entire issue. There is also more emphasis placed on the story “Grady” than any of the other stories, because of the way the editors chose to lay this story out in the issue. “Grady” begins on pages five and goes through to page eight, but is then cut in half, with the remaining pages occupying pages 51 through 55. There are no more stories after the end of “Grady,” so if the 1980 issue is read through in chronological order, the end of “Grady” is the story you are left with. This story was published in Under Construction the same year as the 1980 election. It was also published at a time when the national discussion of women’s rights and the ERA was very popular. This story highlights the male dominated world of the military during World War II, when gender roles were much stricter compared to the 1980s. “Grady” seems to highlight the idea that the military is a domain that should solely belong to men, at a time when opponents of the ERA were arguing that passage of the amendment would lead to women being drafted. The story “Grady” also serves to demonstrate how much female representation in the magazine would change after 1980, because (in all of the subsequent issues of Under Construction after 1981) emphasis was instead placed on stories authored by females or which included feminist themes.

When comparing the Fall 1980 issue of Under Construction with the Winter 1981 issue, it is clear that female representation and stories with feminist themes pick up a great deal. One example of a story with feminist themes from the Winter 1981 issue is called “BNE 803” by Heidi Myers. The title refers to the license plate number of a Jeep that stalks a young woman walking home after work late one night. As the woman gets closer to home, she sees the same blue Jeep over and over again, which begins to escalate her terror. Finally she manages to make it inside her house without the Jeep’s driver noticing where she lives. However, the Jeep circles her block several times. Eventually she calls the police to report the incident, but no patrol cars come over the next hour. Finally she decides to drive to the police station, and is chased by the Jeep again. When she finally gets inside the police station to file a report in person, the female dispatcher and the male police officers are apathetic to her distress (Myers 1981). This story highlights one woman’s experience of not having her concerns taken seriously. This is reflected in arguments by proponents of the ERA, who believed that the amendment would help legitimize women’s issues, and give women legal recourse when faced with gender discrimination.

Another story with feminist themes in the Winter 1981 issue is called “NHCC Causes Banning of Pot Roast” by Carol Moler. This is a non-fiction story from Moler’s life detailing her decision to return to school. Moler had grown up during the 1950s when expectations for women had been much different. She had adhered to the prescribed female gender roles of her day by getting married after high school and staying home to raise her children rather than pursuing a career. Every Wednesday for the past 15 years she had made a pot roast. However, once she decided to pursue a college education, she was no longer able to fit a weekly pot roast into her schedule. Moler’s husband adapted by learning to cook, and Moler herself was now able to help her daughter with math homework. The most important thing to come of the experience for her was greater self-esteem and a feeling of accomplishment (Moler 1981).

Because of her decision to go back to school, the gender roles for Moler and her husband are reversed, with Moler helping with math homework and her husband making dinner. This story can be seen as a direct challenge to the idea that passage of the ERA would threaten the structure of the American family. Moler shows that some changes are for the better, by showing that her and her husband are able to adapt to her spending more time outside the home. Going to school has also allowed Moler to become a more positive role model for her daughter. She was worried about learning math after being out of school for so long, but she is now able to help her daughter with her math homework (Moler 1981). This also shows that the fulfillment Moler experiences by raising her children is enhanced by gaining skills that will not only help her find a future job, but also deepens her relationship with her daughter, thus refuting the idea that women’s sole domain is in the home.

There are also several poems in this issue with feminist themes. One of them is called “Child of Mine” by Heidi Myers. This poem discusses an abortion which, it is explained, had to happen because the parents were much too young. Despite feeling that the abortion was necessary, Myers paints a picture of the complexity of the emotions that a woman has to grapple with for the rest of her life after making such a decision. She talks about these emotions hitting her out of nowhere, such as when she sees other people’s children and imagines how old her own baby would have been. This can be seen as a refutation of the anti-ERA argument that legal abortions would lead to women having them done casually. As seen in Myers’ poem, there is nothing casual about an abortion. Another poem with feminist themes is an untitled one by Sherry Wostrel. In this poem Wostrel discusses all of her roles, such as: wife, mother, daughter, housewife, cook, career woman, and student. She elaborates briefly on each role with two short lines. The lines after wife read, “submissively independent, married to Jeff six years.”, and the lines after housewife reads, “with grim determination I cook, and clean, and wash the clothes (Wostrel 1981).”

The stories and poems detailed above from the Winter 1981 issue of Under Construction are examples of how this issue greatly expanded the amount of female representation and feminist themes when compared to the Fall 1980 issue. All of these literary works represent real issues faced by women at the time, and women today. There were a total of 31 literary works in this issue, and of those, ten of them contain feminist themes. That is a jump from feminist works comprising 12.5% of the Fall 1980 issue, to comprising 32.3% of the Winter 1981 issue. In addition, 80.6% of the literary works in this issue were authored by women, regardless of whether they had feminist themes or not, which is an increase from the 62.5% of female authored works in the Fall 1980 issue.

The tables below helps to illustrate the fluctuation in both female representation and feminist themes in Under Construction between 1980 and 1983.

Table 1 Table 2

One of the big differences between the Fall 1980 issue of Under Construction and the Winter 1981 issue is that there was a complete change in the faculty advisors. Dyan McClimon had been the literary advisor in 1980, but by Winter 1981 Vicky Lettmann had taken over that role. She would continue to be the literary advisor until the end of 1982. Likewise, Frank Schreiber was replaced by Lance Kiland in this issue. The change in faculty advisors was accompanied by a new mission statement being placed in the beginning of this issue, in which the advisors state that they would like to better reflect student interests and be more “responsive” to the North Hennepin community (Lettmann and Kiland 1981). It makes sense that the advisors would choose to accomplish this by increasing the amount of feminist themes and female representation in the magazine because, by 1981, women made up 58% of the student population (Wavrin 1983) (see Table 1 and 2).

The trend of increasing feminist themes and female representation continued in the Spring 1981 issue of Under Construction, with 41.5% of the literary works containing feminist themes, and 83% of the literary works being authored by women (see Table 1 and 2). A poem by Heidi Myers called “Who For us Men” discusses the underrepresentation of women in the clergy of her church. In this poem she says that she believes in God, but was confused about why men are the only gender with higher positions in the church. Distraught about this, she asks a Christian man at her church to explain this to her. He replies that God has provided a role for everyone, and a woman’s role is to nurture children. He then points at his “crippled” hand and says that this is his “cross to bear.” To Myers, this is understood to mean that her female body is considered “crippled” as well. She concludes the poem by explaining how she still believes in God, but no longer attends church with her parents (Myers 1981). This is one woman’s story about the inequality she has experienced because she is female, which reinforces the reasons why proponents of the ERA believed that an amendment to the constitution promoting gender equality was necessary in the first place.

Another story from Spring 1981 with feminist themes is called “My Fat Syndrome” by Carol Moler. In this story, Moler discusses how she struggled with her weight until age 30. Moler talks about the challenges she faced as she entered adolescence and began to be interested in boys. One particular incident she remembers is asking a boy to a dance, and having him tell her afterwards that he only agreed to go because their mothers were friends. He also tells her that she would be a great girl if she wasn’t so fat. This event was the catalyst for Moler’s decades’ long experimentation with unhealthy crash diets. The only way she was able to break this cycle was by coming to NHCC and taking a nutrition class (Moler 1981). When compared to Moler’s work in the Winter 1981 issue of Under Construction, it is clear that she not only found personal fulfilment from attending North Hennepin, but she was also able to improve her health as well. She would not have been able to do this if she had not decided to go back to school in order to work outside of the home.

We finally see feminist themes and female representation in Under Construction reach its peak in the Winter 1982 issue, with 58.8% of the literary works containing feminist themes. This number also happens to be the percent of women in the student population at the time. Thirty-two of the Thirty-four literary works in this issue, or 94%, are also authored by women regardless of theme (see Table 1 and 2). One example of a poem with feminist themes is by Sherry Lee, and it discusses her feeling of being held back by her “husband’s demands” and her “children’s needs” (Lee 1982). This makes her feel like she is unable to be spontaneous because she does not have any free time (Lee 1982). Lee ends this poem by saying that, “She allowed others to enslave her. She had no self” (Lee 1982). Another poem with feminist themes is called “Portraits” by Carol Moler. In this short poem, Moler compares the differences between how men and women related to each other in the past and present. She claims that women of the past had to look up to their husbands, but the women of the 1980s were able to look at men eye-to-eye, and were able to take care of themselves (Moler 1982). A third poem that deals with feminist themes is called “Ms. Muffet” by Brigid M. Quinn. This poem is a reimagining of the children’s rhyme Little Miss Muffet, only this time Miss Muffet confronts her spider problem head-on instead of running away from it (Quinn 1982). These poems all deal with women and how they see themselves. Lee’s poem expresses the feeling that she is no longer in control of her life, while Moler and Quinn’s poems express the liberation they feel because they can take care of themselves.

By the Spring of 1982, female representation and feminist themes begins to decline in Under Construction. Literary works with feminist themes dropped to 37% in this issue, while 72.2% of the literary works were authored by women (see Table 1 and 2). This reduction in feminist themes lines up with the timeline of the ERA, which had failed to be ratified June 1982. However, there are still many examples of feminist works in this issue. One story called “A Memoir, and Much More” by Leslie Keyes lays out the details of her mother’s life. She had grown up at a time when keeping a clean house was seen as being one of a woman’s highest achievements, but Keyes’ mother doesn’t keep up with that anymore. Neighbors stare at her unkempt lawn and judge her as being lazy, but that is not the case. Her mother has just come to the conclusion, after a very difficult life which included being raped twice, that keeping up appearances does not really solve anything (Keyes 1982).

The next issue of Under Construction from the Winter of 1983 continues this downward trend for feminist themes, with only 16.7% of the literary works containing them. However, female representation has slightly increased in this issue, with 76.7% of the literary works authored by women (see Table 1 and 2). It is notable that the feminist themes have declined in this issue, because 1983 was the year after the ERA had failed to be ratified, and was also one year away from the ERA being reintroduced into Congress in 1984. One of the most notable examples of a story with feminist themes in this issue is called “A 50’s Feminist Has Empathy for Man” by Carol Moler. In this story, Moler discusses the gender roles of the 1950s and details how they had changed by the 1980s. She observes that women’s roles had greatly expanded by 1983, including the expansion of women into the work force. Moler explains how this was difficult for men from the 50s to adjust to, since their identities had previously been defined by being providers. More women focusing on their careers also meant that men from the 50s were now being asked to take more responsibility for raising their children, which had previously been the sole domain of women (Moler 1983). This suggests that, as women’s roles expanded, men perceived their roles as shrinking, which can help explain some of the backlash against the ERA, and why it had failed to be ratified.

While the national discussion surrounding the ERA seems to have had a more subconscious effect on the types of stories women were writing in the early 1980s, the literary advisor Vicky Lettmann seems to have played a more deliberate role in getting these types of stories published. One hint Vicky Lettman consciously decided to increase female representation when she took over as literary advisor in 1981 is her response to a review of Under Construction by English faculty member Al Calvin. In the May 21, 1981 edition of the student newspaper the North Star, Calvin offers a lukewarm review of the literary works in the Winter issue of Under Construction from that year. The title of the article reads: “Under Construction Proves Some Writers Shouldn’t be Published.” Calvin elaborates on this title in his review, where he accuses the magazine of choosing quantity over quality when it chose what to publish in the Winter 1981 issue (Calvin 1981). He also notes that there were five times more female authored stories than male authored stories in this issue, and claims that increasing the number of stories published by men would have made the issue more balanced (Calvin 1981). Vicky Lettmann responds to this criticism in the same issue of the North Star by asking Calvin why there are so many more male writers published in his anthologies than women writers (Lettmann 1981). She also insists that Calvin read Silences by Tillie Olsen, which is an example of feminist literature that discusses how being a woman and a mother has held female writers back historically (Lettmann 1981). This suggests that Lettmann was intentionally trying to create a space for female representation in the Winter 1981 issue of Under Construction, which was especially important at a time when ERA advocates and feminists were trying to get women’s concerns taken seriously.

Certainly Vicky Lettmann played a role in deciding who would be represented in Under Construction while she was literary advisor between Winter 1981 to Spring 1982. In her paper, Sam Savela elaborates on the influence an advisor can have on who gets represented in Under Construction by looking at the impact Michael Fedo had on the issues that came out from 1970 to 1974. She states that, “Under Construction continued to present itself as a platform for students to represent themselves through literature of their choosing, but the actual publication represented students through literature of Fedo’s choosing” (Savela 2010). However, this situation does not seem to be the case while Vicky Lettmann was literary advisor during the early 1980s. The stated goal in the Winter 1981 issue of Under Construction was to better represent student interests, and with 58% of the school population comprising of females that year, it follows that an interest in feminist issues would be prevalent among the school population. However, before Lettmann was replaced as literary advisor in 1983, the amount of stories with feminist themes had already declined in the Spring 1982 while she was still the advisor.

When the timeline for the history of the ERA is compared to the changes in female representation and feminist themes present in Under Construction between 1980 to 1983, it is clear that the ERA played the biggest role in this fluctuation. So while Vicky Lettmann may have been the person to initiate the increase in female representation after she became literary advisor in 1981, she was clearly following the student population’s interest in the subject of feminism at the time. After the Fall 1980 issue of Under Construction, female representation and feminist themes pick up dramatically. For all three issues published between the Winter 1981 issue of Under Construction to the Winter 1982 issue, female representation and feminist themes are greater than in the previous issue. The peak of female representation and feminist themes occurred in the Winter issue of 1982, right as the deadline for the ERA ratification was coming up. After the amendment failed to be ratified, the amount of stories with feminist themes declined, and by Winter 1983, it hit a level close to the one seen in the 1980 issue of Under Construction. It seems that with the death of the ERA student interests had moved on from feminist ideals, though female writers still made up a large portion of the contributors for the Winter 1983 issue. When the timelines are compared, it is clear that the rise and fall in interest in the ERA mirrors the rise and fall in feminist themes in Under Construction.

Bahr, Marilyn. 1980. “Shana.” Under Construction, Fall.

Bell, Jack U. 1980. “Grady.” Under Construction, Fall.

Calvin, Al. 1981. “‘Under Construction’ Proves Some Writers Shouldn’t Be Published.” North Star, May 21.

Keyes, Leslie. 1982. “A Memoir, and Much More.” Under Construction, Spring.

Lee, Sherry. 1982. “Untitled.” Under Construction, Winter.

Lettmann, Vicky, and Lance Kiland. 1981. “Untitled.” Under Construction, Winter.

Lettmann, Vicky. 1981. “Too Critical.” North Star, May 21.

Moler, Carol. 1983. “A 50’s Feminist Has Empathy for Man.” Under Construction, Winter.

———. 1981. “My Fat Syndrome.” Under Construction, Spring.

———. 1981. “NHCC Causes Banning of Pot Roast.” Under Construction, Winter.

———. 1982. “Portraits.” Under Construction, Winter.

Myers, Heidi. 1981. “BNE 803.” Under Construction, Winter.

———. 1981. “Child of Mine.” Under Construction, Winter.

———. 1981. “Who for Us Men.” Under Construction, Spring.

Quinn, Brigid M. 1982. “Ms. Muffet.” Under Construction, Winter.

Savela, Sam. 2010. “The Disconnect Between Under Construction’s Actual and Ideal Student Body Representation.”

Sievert, Donna. 1980. “Steinem Challenges Feminists.” North Star, October 30.

“The Equal Rights Amendment.” n.d. Equal Rights Amendment. Accessed August 2, 2019. https://www.equalrightsamendment.org/the-equal-rights-amendment.

Unknown. 1980. “Salary Equity Is Aim of NHCC Seminar for Women.” North Star, May 29.

Weber, Jill M. 2008. “Gloria Steinem, ‘Testimony Before Senate Hearming on the Equal Rights Amendment’ (6 MAY 1970),” 20.

Wostrel, Sherry. 1981. “Untitled.” Under Construction, Winter.

– “Child of Mine” by Heidi Myers

Man shot by Secret Service near White House charged with assaulting an officer

A 51-year-old Maryland man who was shot near the White House by the Secret Service Monday evening has been charged with assaulting a law enforcement officer, according to the Metropolitan Police . Department Myron Berryman forced President Trump to briefly halt a news conference when the man charged toward a Secret Service agent right outside the.

آمده ام تا ریشه فساد را بخشکانم

ابراهیم رئیسی گفت: باید در سرمنشا، ریشه فساد را بخشکانیم و من برای انجام این ماموریت بزرگ وارد صحنه شده ام.

به گزارش پول نیوز ، کارگران و تولید کنندگان شهرک صنعتی عباس آباد تهران که از مهم ترین مراکز تولیدی در استان تهران محسوب میشود امروز چند ساعتی میزبان آیت الله رئیسی بودند. در این بازدید چند ساعته، کارآفرینان و کارگران به صورت چهره به چهره و صریح از مشکلات خود با آیت الله رئیسی سخن گفتند و با وی درد و دل کردند.

رئیسی در جریان این بازدید ضمن تاکید بر لزوم تشکیل دولت مردمی برای ایران قوی تاکید کرد: ما نیازمند یک خیزش عمومی و اجتماعی برای برپایی ایران قوی هستیم. این خیزش عمومی حتما نیاز به هم پیمانی یک دولت مردمی با نیروهای مولد کشور دارد. وی در ادامه کارگران و تولید کنندگان را رزمندگان خط مقدم نبرد اقتصادی ملت ایران دانست و بر لزوم حمایت همه جانبه از این سرمایه‌ های ملی و ارزشمند تاکید کرد.
رئیسی گفت: متاسفانه سالهاست این نیروها و پیشرانان حقیقی کشور توسط ساختارهای فسادزا و معیوب، روز به روز در حال ضعیف تر شدن هستند. کارخانجات کوچک و بزرگِ تعطیل و نیمه تعطیل شده، مزارع و مراتع بزرگ و ارزشمندِ رها شده و حاشیه نشینی و مهاجرت، شواهدی بر این ادعا هستند. وی از فعالان عرصه تولید به عنوان پیشتازان اقتصاد و افسران و سربازان میدان پیشرفت کشور یاد کرد و گفت: هر کسی برای رونق تولید تلاش کند به امنیت و اقتدار ملی کمک کرده است.
رئیسی تصریح کرد: فقط قدرت نظامی امنیت آور نیست بلکه تولید برتر و با کیفیت و قابل رقابت با نوع خارجی نیز تولید قدرت می‌کند و امروز قدرت کشور در گرو اقتدار در تولید است. اگر از حوزه های دفاعی کشور، سرریز فناوری در حوزه صنعت کشور داشته باشیم، پیشرفت اتفاق خواهد افتاد. مردم گله مند هستند که چرا کشوری که تولید موشک میکند ولی نمی‌تواند خودروی با کیفیت در سطح توقع مردم بسازد این دلیلش این است که سرریز فناوری از حوزه های دفاعی به صنعت کشور وجود ندارد و ما در دولت سیزدهم این کار را خواهیم کرد ان شاءالله.
نامزد انتخابات ریاست جمهوری در ادامه تصریح کرد: اصلاح نظام بانکی کشور یکی از اولویت‌های دولت مردمی است. از یکسو نقدینگی سرسام آور تبدیل به تهدیدی برای کشور شده و از سوی دیگر، تولیدکننده از کمبود نقدینگی و سرمایه در گردش رنج می برد. از هر مجموعه اقتصادی که بازدید کردم، مردم از مدیریت بانکی گله مند بودند. من در قوه قضائیه جلسات پی در پی را با مسئولان بانکی داشتم و تلاشهای فراوانی برای اصلاح وضع موجود کردم اما این اقدامات کافی نیست. باید در سرمنشا، ریشه فساد را بخشکانیم و من برای انجام این ماموریت بزرگ وارد صحنه شده ام.
کاندیدای سیزدهیمن دوره ریاست جمهوری در بخش دیگری از سخنانش با اشاره به معضل صدور مجوزها در حوزه تولید گفت: دولت وظیفه هدایت، حمایت و نظارت دارد، اما نباید صدور مجوزها باعث اخلال در روند تولید شود. رئیسی افزود: دولت باید بر فعالیت‌های تولیدی نظارت داشته باشد، اما نباید با مجوزها و تصمیمات خلق الساعه دست و پای تولیدگر را ببندد.
وی ادامه داد: کارآفرین و تولیدگر باید بتواند برنامه ریزی و پیش بینی داشته باشد و مجوزهای دست و پا گیر و بی ثباتی در مقررات و تصمیم گیری‌ها مانع این کار است و الزام تولیدکننده و کارآفرین به اخذ مجوزهای متعدد، باید جای خود رابه نظارت پسینی دولت بدهد. وی همچنین با اشاره به معضل قاچاق و واردات بی رویه تاکید کرد: برخوردهای پلیسی و قضایی با واردات بی رویه و قاچاق کالا کافی نیست، ریشه مافیای واردات و قاچاق را باید از طریق دولت خشکاند. رئیسی افزود: راه حل مقابلسه با قاچاق این است که ارزی که از مسیر صادرات به دست می‌آید وارد حوزه تولید شود و این وظیفه دولت است که بر این موضوع نظارت کند. وی در ادامه تاکید کرد: اگر پول حاصل از صادرات به درستی رهگیری شود قاچاق به ویژه قاچاق سازمان یافته به حداقل می‌رسد و ما در دولت آینده این موضوع را با جدیت پیگیری می‌کنیم.
این کاندیدای ریاست جمهوری به معضل قطعی برق نیز اشاره کرد و آن را موجب اخلال در فعالیت‌های تولیدی دانست و تاکید کرد در برنامه ششم توسعه تاکید شده بود که باید به چه میزانی برق تولید می‌کردیم، اما به این قانون عمل نشد.
رئیسی افزود: اگر قانون برنامه اجرا می‌شد امروز واحدهای تولیدی با قطعی چند ساعته برق مواجه نمی‌شدند و تولید تعطیل نمی‌شد و شاهد این میزان خسارت نبودیم. رئیسی در بخش دیگری از سخنانش با اشاره به وجود نیروهای مولد و موثر در کشور گفت: این نیروها اگر جدی گرفته شوند، میتوانند مشکلات سخت و ساختاری اقتصاد را برطرف کنند، بنده همپیمان این نیروهای مولد خواهم بود و در میدان و در جزء جزء حرکت کشور متوجه و دغدغه مند آنها هستم. کاندیدای سیزدهمین انتخابات ریاست جمهوری تصریح کرد: باید در میدان، از نیروهای مولد حمایت کرد. باید زنجیره های راهبردی صنعت را تکمیل کرد و باید از بازار ملی حفاظت و پشتیبانی کرد. اینها همه جز با ائتلاف و هم پیمانی گسست ناپذیر مابین دولت و نیروهای مولد و بدنه تولیدی کشور امکان پذیر نیست. رئیسی با اشاره به عملکرد دو ساله خود در عدلیه ادامه داد: حرکت ما در قوه قضائیه برای مبارزه با فساد و حمایت از تولید هم به همین شیوه بوده است. گام به گام و نه شتاب زده، قاطع و مستحکم و نه لرزان و مردد و در صحنه و مورد به مورد. من دست استمداد به سمت همه نیروهای مولد و ضدفساد برای ساختن ایران قوی دراز می کنم.
وی ضمن برشمردن ویژگی های دولت مدنظر خود در این خصوص گفت: دولت مردمی دولتی فعال، چابک و تولیدمحور خواهد بود که اصلاح ساختارهای درونی خود و حمایت از نیروهای مولد را به منظور خوداتکایی و استقلال عدالت محور ایران عزیز پی خواهد گرفت. رئیسی در پایان سخنانش، از ائتلافی بودن دولت خود سخن گفت و آن را اینگونه معرفی کرد: من امروز برای اعلام ائتلاف ناگسستنی دولت مردمی، با شما تولیدکنندگان و کارگران عزیز، به اینجا آمده ام. هدف مشترک ما تشکیل ایران قوی است و من برای این کار دولت ائتلافی تشکیل خواهم داد، ائتلاف با تولید کنندگان، کارآفرینان و کارگران عزیز.
مهمترین دغدغه و درد دل کارگران در این بازدید چند ساعته مواردی چون تورم فزاینده، مسکن و اجاره نشینی و عدم ثبات شغلی بدلیل تضعیف و یا تعطیل تولید در بسیاری از واحدهای صنعتی بود. تولید کنندگان نیز با ابراز گلایه شدید از مسائلی همچون مشکلات بانکی، بروکراسی اداری، مجوز های بی پایان و متعدد، واردات لجام گسیخته و قاچاق کالا از آیت الله رئیسی برای نجات تولید و صنعت کشور استمداد کردند.
رییسی پس از بازدید از خط تولید دو کارخانه لوازم خانگی و تجهیزات صنعتی و گفت و گو با کارگران، در نشست با جمعی از تولید کنندگان و مدیران شهرک صنعتی عباس آباد هم شرکت کرد.

ABC News speaks with a refugee who managed to flee to safety with his family. Russian diplomat in a vehicle fatally shot a gun-carrying mugger who tried to rob him as the Olympic torch was being carried past in Rio de Janeiro, ­a ­report said. Marcos Cesar Feres Braga, a . Brazilian lawyer who serves as a consul at the Russian consulate, was approached by an armed man on a motorcycle.

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